The Journal of the

Institute of Circuit Technology

Vol 11 No 3

November 2018

 Links to Contents  Section
Calendar of Events 1


Bill Wilkie

Council Members 3

Members News

Alun Morgan, Martin Cotton, Peter Coakley, Rex Rozario, Anthony Lloyd, New Members Update. 


Event Review:

ICT Annual Symposium at The National Motor Museum, 5th June 2018

Pete Starkey


Event Review:

ICT Hayling Island Symposium, 20th September 2018

Pete Starkey

Material Development:

Boron Arsenide – a novel high thermal conductivity material for electronics applications.

Martin Goosey


Product Development:

Increasing the Performance of Organic PCBs at Higher Temperatures

Martin Wickham


PCB Fabricators Group

Steve Payne


Industry News: Adeon, ALR Services, Atotech, Merlin Circuit Group, GSPK Circuits, Amphenol Invotec, PMD Group, SCL PCB Solutions, Stevenage Circuits, Zot.

Corporate Members 11
Publishers Notes 12


Section 1

Calendar of Events 

  2017 Events
 5th December ICT Evening Seminar at Majestic Hotel, Harrogate
  2018 Events
13th March ICT Evening Seminar & AGM at the Best Western plus Manor Hotel, Meriden
9th-12th April Annual Foundation Course at Chester University
5th June Annual Symposium at the Beaulieu Motor Museum
20th September ICT Evening Seminar at Hayling Island
6th December ICT Christmas Seminar at Majestic Hotel, Harrogate
  2019 Events
26th February Evening Seminar and AGM
8th - 11th April Annual Foundation Course at Chester University
June Annual Symposium and Fabricators Group Meeting

Go back to Contents

Section 2 Management vs Vision


There was a programme recently about Nokia, the phone company of our youth and at one time, the largest phone manufacturer in the world. In 2007, only 11 years ago, two things happened. The first concerned a young talented Finnish phone designer who had a meeting with the board at Nokia. He showed them some new phone software he had written, which enabled swiping from page to page, a big innovation even then. The board said it was an interesting development, but a bit of a gimmick. They didn’t believe their customers wanted such gimmicks, but he should continue to make phones his way and they would continue to make phones the Nokia way. In other words, they were big and he was small!

The second development, the same year, involved a high heid yin from Nokia who was attending a fair in the states. He took a call from head office, return to base immediately. Someone called Jobs, Steve Jobs had just demo’d a phone and if it was real; it would threaten their very existence. That was the end of Nokia and almost overnight, they went from Number one to Number two and basically never recovered.

Around 2001, you would have found a Blockbuster Video store in your high street. They had just appointed a new CEO and one of his first tasks was to look at a proposal to buy an up and coming young company called Net flicks for $50 Million. He deemed the idea of Subscription TV to be a gimmick that would never catch on and declined the offer. By the year 2007, Blockbuster Video were bust and now Netflix have 50 million subscribers and are valued in excess of $30 billion.

Vision is definitely different from management, so don’t be surprised if in 10 years’ time, you are paying your subs monthly and watching ICT training videos projected on a convenient wall from a projector built into your ear stud!

Go back to Contents


Section 3

ICT Council Members

Council Members 2018: 

 Andy Cobley (Chairman), Steve Payne (Deputy Chairman), Chris Wall (Treasurer), William Wilkie (Membership Secretary & Events), Bruce Routledge (the Journal) Richard Wood-Roe (Web Site),Martin Goosey, Lynn Houghton, Maurice Hubert, Lawson Lightfoot, Peter Starkey, Francesca Stern, Bob Willis and Matthew Beadell.

Go back to Contents


Section 4

Membership News

alun morgan Alun Morgan, Chairman of the EIPC, has been named Technology Ambassador for Ventec International Group. In support of a common mission to promote the next generation's progress in PCB material design, Alun will apply his extensive background and expertise in advocating for the Taiwan stock exchange listed company as an advisor and ambassador. Read more...
martin cotton Please join us in wishing Martin Cotton, Director OEM Projects, a very happy retirement.
Martin Cotton’s career spans over 51 years with 45 spent in the Printed Circuit Board Industry. After much consideration and careful planning, Martin announced his retirement at the end of September 2018 and will be gradually working his way out of the company by the end of the year.Martin will be retiring from full-time employment to concentrate on commercializing his many patents.Read more...
peter coakley2 Ventec International Group Co., Ltd. has appointed Peter Coakley as sales director UK. Effective July 1, Peter takes over the responsibility for the strategic leadership of UK sales activities that will contribute to the overall growth strategy of the company. Read more...

rex rozario2

Rex Rozario

rex wedding

Rex and Ruth were married at Lympstone Manor. Saturday 7th July 2018

anthony lloyd

GSPK Circuits Operations Manager Anthony Lloyd appeared for York City Legends supporting a local charity.

GSPK and it’s employees have a policy of supporting Local and National charities each year and Anthony was glad to put his super skills to work. The event has received positive feedback from many of the 596 York City supporters who attended the Fundraising match.
The match and family fun day, raised thousands of pounds but more importantly gave the fans the opportunity to come together in a Celebration of everything York City.

Proceeds will be split between the Supporters’ Trust and The Offside Trust – an organisation that aims to combat child abuse in sport. Read more...

 Bill Wilkie: Technical Director and Membership Secretary


Harry Dennett GSPK
Jason Turley Eurotech Group
Marcus Hole Eurotech Group
David Bradshaw Eurotech Group
Peter McNeill Sensata
Matthew Boyd Sensata
David Thomson CCE Europe
Rebecca Townsend Electra
Jenifer Gimenez Amphenol- Invotec
Dan Haines Ventec International
Leanne Cooper CCE Europe
Edward White Eurotech Group


Jonathan Conboy Sun Chemical Ltd
Keith Mateer Sun Chemical Ltd
Graham Bullman Sun Chemical Ltd
Tony Searle Sun Chemical Ltd
Simon Ford Sun Chemical Ltd


Martin Wickham National Physical Laboratory

  Go back to Contents


 Section 5

The Institute of Circuit Technology Annual Symposium

National Motor Museum, Beaulieu, 5th June 2018

Pete Starkey

bill wilkie

Bill Wikie: Technical Director ICT

ICT technical director Bill Wilkie is well-known for choosing notable venues for Institute of Circuit Technology events, and his choice for this year’s Annual Symposium was the National Motor Museum, located in the village of Beaulieu in the heart of the New Forest, a national park in the county of Hampshire in Southern England.

The region is known for its heathland, forest trails and native ponies. The museum houses a collection of around 250 vehicles manufactured since the late 1800s and was established in the 1950s by Lord Montagu of Beaulieu as a tribute to his father, a pioneer of motoring in the United Kingdom.

andy colby

Professor Andy Cobley

ICT Chairman

Introduced by ICT chairman Professor Andy Cobley, the principal theme of the symposium was advances in digital imaging technology, and he welcomed a distinguished audience of delegates that epitomised the “Who's Who” of the UK PCB industry.

Born locally, Professor Cobley was proud of the industrial heritage of the area, making particular mention of Supermarine Aviation Works, the aircraft manufacturer that produced the Supermarine Spitfire fighter as well as a range of seaplanes and flying boats and the engine that powered the land-speed record-breaking Golden Arrow.

He took the opportunity to give an update on the progress of the Maturolife project, led by his team at Coventry University and aimed at producing an innovative assistive technology with sensors integrated into fabrics and textiles. Key objectives were to develop a method for selective metallisation of textiles, and to replace traditional palladium catalyst with a lower-cost copper nanoparticle catalyst. A copper nanoparticle catalyst produced at Coventry University had been successfully used in the electroless copper plating of polyester fabric.

prof andy west

Andy West Professor of Intelligent Systems at Loughborough University

Professor of Intelligent Systems at Loughborough University, Andy West gave the keynote presentation, focused on Industry 4.0 in electronics manufacture. His multi-disciplinary Embedded Integrated Intelligent Systems research group at Loughborough was engaged in a wide range of projects developing the tools, methods and value of applying adaptive embedded systems in manufacturing, healthcare and sport. “What you put into the digital space has to link to some sort of knowledge that makes the business run better!” He stressed that information and communication tools were strategically important key technologies to enable current and next generations of manufacturing, and that knowledge management and methodologies were required to support design through to production with embedded intelligence, continuing through operational life and service and eventually end-of-life and re-birth into new products and processes.

Professor West referred to the study, commissioned by the IMPULS Foundation of the German Engineering Federation which offered an on-line self-check to determine a company’s level of readiness for Industry 4.0, identifying areas where it was already well prepared, and where there was room for improvement. The 4th Industrial Revolution was based on cyber-physical systems and Professor West gave many examples of control and monitoring by embedded sensors and actuators, interactions between physical and software components, advanced analytics, visualisation and prediction algorithms.

His group was very keen to cooperate with industry and had worked closely with an automotive manufacturer on the implementation of intelligent systems, finding it preferable to work in a factory environment rather than a laboratory in order to get closer to reality and achieve more rapid feedback of meaningful observations. The group had also experimented with embedded RFID and sensors in PCBs and SMT assembly equipment as a demonstration of intelligent systems in electronics manufacturing.

A specific example of a project that presented a business opportunity with environmental benefits was a novel cyber-physical system providing flexible, adaptable control of the refurbishment of waste electrical and electronic equipment, mobile phones in this instance. The outcome was visibility of traceability and process data for customer and processor, confidence that the end user got a working device, confidence for the supplier that sensitive data had been erased, and confidence for the processor that maximum value had been extracted.

 neil chamberlain

Neil Chamberlain, European Sales Manager of Polar Instruments

 “Fast and Fine” was the title of the presentation by Neil Chamberlain, Polar Instruments’ European sales manager, who discussed the signal integrity challenges of fine lines and high-speed signalling. He emphasised the significance of copper profiles and conductor geometry in high-speed applications. Whereas at the 50–60Hz frequencies typical in electric power transmission the cross-section of the cable was calculated to minimise energy loss through resistance heating, signal lines operating at GHz frequencies exhibited a “skin effect,” where most of the signal was carried in a thin surface layer of the conductor. For low frequencies the skin depth was several millimetres, but for example at 2GHz, it was as little as two microns. “Most of it is carried in the roughness!” he declared, referring to the bonding treatments applied to electrodeposited copper foil during its manufacture and during multilayer PCB fabrication. To illustrate this, he quoted the IPC definition of roughness for very-low-profile foil (5.2 microns maximum), and ultra-low-profile foil (no maximum stated but typically about 2 microns).

The PCB designer needed the facility to simulate roughness with an effective modelling tool. With reference to the assertion of George P. Box: “All models are wrong, but some are useful,” Chamberlain commented that even the best modelling tools were of no use unless the designer could incorporate some meaningful numerical values. He described the 3-D “pile of cannonballs” concept developed from the “snowballs” theory demonstrated by Paul Huray, to predict the additional power losses associated with copper roughness, which gave good correlation with observed measurements for rough microstrip lines. But there remained the need for a known standard, and Chamberlain cited Segal’s Law: "A man with a watch knows what time it is. A man with two watches is never sure." The fallacy was that the man with one watch could not be sure he knew the right time unless he had a standard to compare it with, because otherwise he had no way of identifying error or uncertainty. And the same applied in the case of the man with two watches—unless he had a point of reference, there were risks in making decisions based on conflicting information.

Chamberlain demonstrated the differences in insertion loss figures obtained by different modelling methods and commented that when lines were very fine or very long, the DC resistance of the line could not be ignored when measuring its true impedance. A technique known as Launch Point Extrapolation could now be used to compensate for the effects of series AC and DC resistance and achieve a closer match between lossless field solver models and measurements on thin copper or fine line PCBs. 

 joost anne veerman

Joost Anne Veerman,

inkjet printing specialist MuTracx International

 Neil Chamberlain’s presentation set a scene for Joost Anne Veerman, MuTracx International’s inkjet printing specialist, to discuss the results of an investigation of the effects of conductor edge smoothness on impedance. Veerman explained how a conductor image was created as a composite of a series of ink droplets and demonstrated the characteristic differences between X-direction and Y-direction features. The nature of the inkjet process was that, however accurately it was controlled, the edges of features would always show some evidence of waviness as a consequence of the residual geometry of successive drops. By comparison, direct imaging with a photoresist resulted in more sharply-defined edges. To some extent, the etching process has a smoothing effect, but there remained a distinct difference in conductor-edge geometry between the two technologies. The questions to be resolved were whether this difference was significant in the context of controlled impedance and whether inkjet imaging was appropriate for high frequency PCBs.

A test board had been designed using a composite of standard IPC coupons in 0°, 45° and 90° orientations in a 10-layer stack-up, featuring 100-ohm edge-coupled differential strip-lines with 100/150 micron and 100/100 micron track/gap, and single-ended strip-lines with 175 micron 50 ohm, 75 micron 75 ohm, and 195 micron 50 ohm tracks.

Two panels were manufactured using the MuTracx inkjet printer, and two using LDI and photoresist. Track widths and edge waviness were measured on innerlayers before and after etching. Impedances were measured with a time-domain reflectometer, and microsections were made for measurement of dielectric and copper thickness. Veerman showed comprehensive test data.

From the results it was clear that there was no strong correlation between cross-section data and impedance. Impedance correlated with average track width and, significantly, no difference was observed between LDI and inkjet imaging technologies in terms of the effect of track-edge waviness. Dielectric thickness had the most dominant effect, together with the effect of resin-to-glass ratio on dielectric constant.


Before the commencement of the afternoon session, the indefatigable efforts of Len Pillinger over many years of acting as the link between the Institute and the standards committees were recognised in the award of Honorary Fellowship, presented by ICT Chairman Professor Andy Cobley.

len pillinger

 michel van den heuvel

Michel van den Heuvel, Imaging Group Director at Ucamco

The programme re-commenced with a discussion of advances in direct imaging technology from Michel van den Heuvel, imaging group director at Ucamco.

The trend had been to move from high-pressure mercury lamps to UV-LED light sources, particularly for solder mask exposure. The state-of-the-art was a broad-multi-wavelength system, with peaks typically at 365, 385 and 405 nanometres, operated simultaneously and with the ability to control individual intensities to optimise the mix to suit individual solder masks.

The shorter wavelengths favoured the polymerisation of the surface of the solder mask, the medium wavelengths penetrated deeper into the thickness, and the longer wavelengths ensured good polymerisation at the copper surface. The optimised combination gave a very uniform through-cure, resulting in very straight sidewalls after development and the capability to reliably resolve 50-micron solder dams without undercut, as well as shortening the exposure time and hence increasing throughput. The system also gave very good results with black solder masks. Van den Heuvel explained that the Ledia equipment supplied by Ucamco had many advanced features: its autofocus capability could compensate for panel warpage of up to 800 microns; its automatic imaging-head calibration facility ensured the position of each imaging head in relation to the other five heads, resulting in perfect stitching of the image and compensated for minute dimensional changes in the machine due to temperature variations. It also had a range of innovative automatic alignment features to compensate for substrate distortion. To fulfil the requirement for complete traceability, there was the facility to mark every individual PCB image with a unique identity, human- or machine-readable, which could also incorporate scaling information if required.

 peter alliston

Peter Alliston, VP sales for Orbotech West

Peter Alliston, VP sales for Orbotech West, discussed the trends currently driving PCB technology, and described how leading suppliers of imaging and inspection tools had responded with developments in the capability of their equipment. He identified four market sectors: Internet of Things and 5G infrastructure, smartphones, automotive, and Industry 4.0 and robotics.

High-frequency PCB designs for 5G wireless broadband operating in the millimetre wave spectrum would demand strict impedance control at the 5% tolerance level, and low-loss materials. It was forecast that there would be 30 billion connected devices by 2020 and 75 billion by 2035.

Smartphones were leading mass production technology, with trends to 20X faster processing and communication rates together with increased battery capacity, to support augmented reality, artificial intelligence, and biometric and medical sensing. As batteries got larger, the space available to accommodate the PCBs got smaller, forcing an increase in interconnection density towards 20-micron lines and spaces that could not be achieved by established HDI processes. The technology was trending towards substrate-like-PCB (SLP), produced by modified semi-additive processing (mSAP). The use of flex in smartphones was increasing—up to 20 flex circuits in every unit, and there was a move towards roll-to-roll manufacture for more cost-effective production

Rapid development continued in automotive electronics, and the requirements of safety and autonomous operation were driving advances in sensor technology—radar, lidar, cameras, long range radar, and ultrasonics, many of which needed 5G connectivity. The use of HDI was increasing, and the automotive sector was forecast to represent 15% of the total HDI market by 2020.

Enormous investment was being made in automation, smart data exchange and cyber physical systems, and the global robotics industry was forecast to expand from $34 billion to $226 billion by 2021.

So how did a company like Orbotech respond to these trends and provide solutions for the PCB industry? Alliston described latest developments in direct imaging for HDI, mSAP and solder mask, with particular emphasis on achieving registration accuracy and high throughput. He discussed new concepts in AOI with integrated 2D metrology, and how the needs of Industry 4.0 were supported with a smart factory metrology package offering full product traceability for root cause analysis and life cycle control. 

 chris wall

Chris Wall, Technical Director of Electra Polymers and ICT Treasurer

Chris Wall, technical director of Electra Polymers and ICT Treasurer, discussed inkjet as a method of patterning solder mask. Speaking from over three decades of experience in ink formulation, he began by defining the performance requirements of a solder mask, a permanent polymeric coating for a printed circuit board, patterned to allow access to selected areas of copper, and resistant to subsequent processes and to the end use environment, preventing the growth of metal whiskers and preventing corrosion of underlying circuitry. Its primary purpose was to enable mass soldering processes.

There were two principal process routes to creating a solder mask pattern: indirect and direct. The indirect route involved coating all over with a photoimageable material, exposing an image using a photomaster or a laser, developing to remove unexposed material, and final curing. The direct route was to place the material only where it was needed, traditionally by screen printing, or more recently by inkjet printing, followed by a final cure.

The intrinsic limitations of screen printing were resolution and registration, plus the need to make and store artworks and screens. Drop-on-demand inkjet offered a repeatable digital process with potential for high output, with the capability to scale and offset the image to compensate for distortion of the PCB. Reduced waste, reduced energy costs and reduced work-in-progress were other potential benefits. But how to formulate an ink that would jet successfully and meet the material performance requirements?

Wall described the piezoelectric drop-on-demand process and demonstrated how a drop was created and how it could change its shape in flight. The tail formed as it left the nozzle could be absorbed into the drop or could break away as a satellite and be deposited as an extraneous pattern defect. Formulation of inkjet solder masks was subject to several constraints, and there were a limited number of suitable raw materials. The choice was restricted to very low-viscosity resins and monomers, with low or no filler content and pigment particle sizes less than 200 nanometres, compared with 5–15 microns for conventional solder masks. These low filler contents could adversely affect flammability, thermal shock and solder resistance. And the low viscosity and surface tension meant that good jetting performance was constrained by the laws of physics and the type of print head used. There could be a tendency for pigment sedimentation on storage and to spreading, bleed and track edge thinning on printing, with performance heavily dependent on surface preparation.

The mechanism of curing depended on the resin chemistry. UV-cured acrylates polymerised and cross-linked by a free radical chain reaction, epoxies by a cationic reaction, and hybrid epoxy/acrylate systems by a combination of the two. It was normal practice to additionally carry out a final thermal cure.

To help overcome bleed and track edge thinning effects, the ink could be instantaneously pin-cured with low-level UV to fix droplets in place, and multi-layered techniques could be used to initially create dams around pads before subsequent filling to eliminate striping, build up thickness on conductor edges, and give a smooth ink surface with sharper edge definition. Specialised surface treatments could be used to minimize the spread of ink droplets.

Chris Wall made the closing remarks on behalf of the Institute, thanking speakers and delegates for making the event another superb learning and networking opportunity, Bill Wilkie for pulling it all together, and Polar Instruments for their generous support. And to round off the day, everyone had the opportunity to browse one of the finest collections of cars, motorcycles and motoring memorabilia in the world.


June 18, 2018 | Pete Starkey, I-Connect007

Go back to Contents


 Section 6

ICT Hayling Island Seminar

September 2018

bill wilkie

Bill Wilkie Technical Director ICT

After an extreme summer heat wave had left trees dehydrated and struggling to morph into their customary display of reds and golds, the leaves were brown and brittle as the great and good of the UK printed circuit board industry crossed the bridge from the mainland of the south coast of England to Hayling Island for the autumn seminar of the Institute of Circuit Technology on September 20, 2018.

ICT technical director Bill Wilkie welcomed delegates to what has of recent years become a highlight of the Institute’s seminar programme and remains an extremely popular event. He emphasised the role of ICT in keeping its membership aware of market trends and emerging technologies, with reference to the demise of some big-name companies who had either failed to recognise those trends or ignored those technologies that had initially appeared to be well-out-of-the-box but had subsequently become mainstream.

He introduced a seminar programme that included a discussion of developments in semi-additive flexible circuit fabrication, an update on global and European market statistics and forecasts, a review of the state-of-the-art in dry film photoresist characteristics and capabilities, and an example of how a good presenter can make potentially dreary legal stuff remarkably interesting.

steve payne

Steve Payne, Cirflex Technology and ICT Vice Chairman

First speaker was ICT vice-chairman Steve Payne, from management and technical consultancy Cirflex Technology, with a presentation entitled “SAP—a Case Study for Flex.”

Payne explained that although the principles of semi-additive processing (SAP) had been established for many years, modified semi-additive processes had become popular in IC substrate production, and were poised for widespread adoption as enabling technologies in the manufacture of ultra-fine-line PCBs, particularly in applications such as the latest smartphones.

The basis of the SAP concept was to use pattern plating to selectively build up the thickness of copper tracks on a very thin base copper, in order to reduce undercut effects when the base copper was etched away. Clearly, the thinner the base copper, the less the undercut, and hence the better the capability to fabricate very fine tracks and gaps.

Payne referred to a case study where semi-additive processing had been employed in the fabrication of flexible circuits with tracks and gaps of 25 microns and less. Obviously, it had been necessary to start with extremely thin base copper, and the choices were to procure flexible materials manufactured with very thin copper foil, to reduce the thickness of standard copper-clad flexible material by controlled etching, or to seek an alternative technique such as sputter-deposition of copper. In Payne’s example, reel-to-reel DC magnetron sputtering had been used to deposit very thin copper onto polyimide film. Because this deposit thickness could be less than one micron, special techniques were demanded in photoimaging and pattern plating processes, but etch undercut was practically eliminated and track and gaps of 25 micron or less could be achieved in good yield. The sputter process could also metallise laser-drilled through-via holes.

Payne discussed the principles of DC magnetron sputtering, described a typical process flow for semi-additive 2-layer flex, and showed examples of flexible circuitry produced using this technology, which was in production in certain locations in the U.S. and the Far East.

francesca stern

Francesca Stern Market Analyst and ICT Council Member

Market analyst and ICT council member Francesca Stern delivered her eagerly-awaited annual review of the global outlook for the PCB and electronics industries. She began with a well-illustrated and authoritative overview of trends in electronics and PCB production in Europe, USA, Japan and China, commenting that there appeared to be a slight slow-down in 2018 as compared with 2017. Consumer electronics production in Germany was definitely moving downwards. It was encouraging that figures for the UK electronics industry were currently looking better than for some other major Western European producers, but growth forecasts for the next two years indicated that the UK would show a downturn later in 2018. The U.S. was currently performing quite well, especially in instrumentation and military areas, but was also expected to show a downturn later in 2018. Japan continued to show negative growth. In China, base stations for 5G were a significant growth area, but so far 2018 had not been a good year for China overall. Global PCB production was valued at around $63 billion in 2017, of which the UK’s share was £128 million with a slight increase to £130 million predicted for 2018. 

 IMG 5022a

John Cornforth

Account Manager Macdermidenthone Electronic Solutions

“Imagine Imaging” was the headline of the third presentation, given by MacDermid Enthone’s John Cornforth, a regular contributor to the ICT foundation course. He described how a relationship had been established between MacDermid Enthone and Hitachi Chemical for the supply of dry film photoresist to the European PCB and metal finishing industries, and discussed the logistics of the supply chain. The products were manufactured in Malaysia and shipped as master rolls to a new cleanroom facility in the UK for slitting to the widths and lengths required by the European market, for which all of the necessary certifications were in place. Cornforth discussed electronics industry trends and the imaging demands of current and emerging PCB manufacturing technologies, an example being semi-additive processing for which thinner resists were required. With reference to Hitachi’s product portfolio, which also included materials for the microelectronics industry, he outlined typical applications for a range of different product types, and reviewed typical customer future requirements which included faster exposure, finer lines, improved adhesion, better tenting and faster stripping. There was a trend for LDI exposure systems to employ shorter wavelengths, and Cornforth described the characteristics of a new dry film specifically developed for 405 nm exposure.

colin martin

Colin Martin of ParaChem Consulting Chemists

The final presentation, given by Colin Martin of ParaChem Consulting Chemists, was an update on the REACH regulations. He remarked that of the four presentations of the evening his might well be the stinker, especially as it was on the subject of environmental compliance and the range of “interesting work” that this invariably created. REACH, a European Union regulation concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & restriction of CHemicals, applied to most businesses in the UK in some way, and was a significant consideration in the PCB industry where it impacted the use of chemicals “from cradle to grave,” both upstream and downstream. Martin gave an introduction to the REACH regulations, and commented that although this was European legislation, the requirements applied to any product sold into the European Union and would continue to apply in the UK after “Brexit.” He discussed the significance of REACH in the PCB industry and explained the meaning of “substances” in “articles,” and the declarations PCB producers were obliged to make to their customers if “Substances of Very High Concern” (SVHCs) were present at more than 0.1% w/w in an “article,” including providing “sufficient information, available to the supplier, to allow safe use of the article including, as a minimum, the name of that substance.” Guidance was available in Article 33 of the REACH regulations.

Specific examples of SVHCs included boric acid, potassium chromate and various organic materials. As of June 2018, further substances had been added including lead, which was still used in some electronics soldering applications. This meant that boards assembled using lead-based solders would need to be weighed to determine if the lead was present at more than 0.1% w/w. Martin commented that HASL-finished boards could well contain more than 0.1% w/w of lead. Compliance statements were necessary for every single product made, so it was important to implement an efficient and systematic approach. ParaChem had developed an online database called ReachWARE, which could assess products and produce compliance reports. Compliance had been a legal requirement since 2009 and failure to make a declaration was a criminal offence, although Martin believed that no-one had so far been prosecuted and, although there was no choice but to comply, there was no need to despair!



martin wickham

Martin Wickham, well known for his work at the National Physical Laboratory, had recently been elected a Fellow of the Institute and he was presented with his fellowship certificate by ICT chairman Professor Andy Cobley, who then thanked the speakers for sharing their knowledge, and MacDermid Enthone for supporting the event. And special thanks to Bill Wilkie for his diligent organising work behind the scenes, and for chairing the seminar.

I am grateful to Professor Martin Goosey for his assistance in preparing this review.

  Go back to Contents


 Section 7

Boron Arsenide

Boron Arsenide – a novel high thermal conductivity material for electronics applications.

Professor Martin Goosey

martin goosey

Visiting Professor in Sustainable Electronics Manufacturing - Loughborough University

Since the birth of the modern semiconductor industry, thermal management has often been an important issue for many electronic components, devices and systems. However, the removal of heat and the control of operating temperatures has taken on an increasing significance as the levels of integration and miniaturisation have continued to drive more and more functionality into ever smaller volumes. There are also many new and emerging applications, such as in LED lighting and electric vehicle power management systems, where the removal of heat is a key requirement in terms of performance and reliability. Whether it is at the semiconductor, PCB, or system level the need for new materials and design solutions that can improve thermal management has never been greater. 

Over the last fifty years or more the industry has gradually developed a range of materials, assembly methods and packaging approaches that are specifically designed to address the need to remove heat. Typical early examples included the use of suitable large metal heatsinks and high thermal conductivity materials such as beryllia. More recently, the benefits of other materials such as aluminium nitride substrates and metal cored PCBs have been exploited and, for the future, the new wonder material graphene seems to have the potential to make a significant contribution. From the PCB perspective, numerous approaches have been developed that are often application specific, but they all rely on removing heat from the source in order to reduce operating temperatures and improve reliability.

One material that has recently come to attention for its high thermal conductivity is boron arsenide. Boron arsenide, as its name confirms, is a chemical compound comprising equal quantities of boron and arsenic and it thus has the chemical formula BAs. Boron is from group three of the periodic table, while arsenic is from group five, so BAs is a three-five (III-V) compound and it is a semiconductor in a similar manner to gallium arsenide, which has long been used in a range electronics applications. BAs has a cubic crystal structure (sphalerite) and a very high melting point (2076 °C). It has been used in the past to form ternary and quaternary semiconductors by alloying it with gallium arsenide and there have also been suggestions that it might find use in photovoltaic applications, although this doesn’t seem to be the case so far. To date, it has been reported as being difficult to produce, with samples showing a significant level of disorder and defects in their crystal structures. This had prevented some of its more interesting material properties, such as high thermal conductivity, from being realised.

Theoretical modelling (1) by a team at the US Naval Research Laboratories in Washington, USA, had suggested that BAs should have a very high thermal conductivity, somewhere over 1,300 W/mK, which is much higher than most of the other well-known high thermal conductivity materials and closer to diamond. However, because of the high level of defects found in most samples produced until recently, the maximum thermal conductivity achieved was below 200 W/mK. While this figure is still good, it was nowhere near what was thought to be possible. That all changed in July this year, when researchers in the School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA, published the results of their work to synthesise BAs crystals with no defects. In a paper entitled ‘Experimental observation of high thermal conductivity in boron arsenide’ (2), Yongjie Hu et al reported that they had synthesized BAs single crystals with undetectable levels of defects. These single crystals were found to exhibit thermal conductivities of around 1,000 W/mK at room temperature. This thermal conductivity is compared with the values for some other popular high thermal conductivity materials in Table 1 below.


Material  Typical Thermal Conductivity / W/mK 
 Beryllia  285
 Aluminium Nitride  Up to 285 (319 theoretical for single crystal)
 Boron Nitride  400
 Copper  401
 Boron Arsenide  1, 000 (actual), 1,300
 Diamond  2,200
 Graphene  3,000 to 5,000

 Table 1: Example thermal conductivities of various materials

As can be seen, the thermal conductivity of BAs, while being high, is significantly below that of graphene, which has the potential to provide thermal conductivities of up to 5,000 W/mK. However, graphene is effectively a two-dimensional material that exhibits a high level of anisotropy in its thermal conductivity. While graphene might offer significant advantages, its utility is often limited by the various interfaces, contacts, and surrounding materials with which it is in contact in many practical applications. However, in the case of BAs, there are likely to be many specific areas and applications in which it will be eminently suitable. The high thermal conductivity BAs reported in the Science paper was produced using a modified chemical vapour deposition (CVD) process, which would seem to suggest that the likely applications would, at least initially, be in the fabrication of semiconductor devices, where such techniques and the related equipment are commonly employed.
However, now that BAs has been successfully produced with effectively no defects, it seems highly likely that the potential range of applications will increase as its productions becomes better understood. Whether it will find use in PCB substrates for example, remains to be seen, but it might be possible to deposit BAs on suitable metal core materials that form part of a high thermal conductivity multilayer PCB substrate, or even to incorporate it into the prepreg/dielectric if it is sufficiently non-conducting, as seems to be the case. It will thus be worth keeping a watch on future work on this interesting material and to see if it is ultimately used successfully in a range of electronics applications.

Martin Goosey
July 2018

1) First-Principles Determination of Ultra-high Thermal Conductivity of Boron Arsenide: A Competitor for Diamond? L. Lindsay, D. A. Broido, and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 025901, published 8th July 2013.
2) Experimental observation of high thermal conductivity in boron arsenide, Joon Sang Kang, Man Li, Huan Wu, Huuduy Nguyen, Yongjie Hu, Science, 5th July 2018, eaat5522, DOI:10.1126/science.aat5522

  Go back to Contents


Section 8

Increasing the Performance of Organic PCBs at Higher Temperatures

Martin Wickham, Vimal Gopee, Adam Lewis and Christine Thorogood

National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK

 martin wickham

Martin Wickham

Senior Research Scientist at National Physical Laboratory (NPL)

This paper was presented at the SMTA Europe, Electronics in Harsh Environments Conference on 24-26 April 2018 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The conference focused on building reliable electronics used in power electronics and harsh environments.


Aerospace, engine management systems, oil and gas resources, automotive and power management for hybrid/electric vehicles are some applications where elevated temperatures, pressures and aggressive media are involved. As a result of emission legislation (e.g. CO2 emissions) and the drive for improvements in efficiency, the market for these applications is growing rapidly. As electronics move ever closer to the source of combustion (engines) or drill heads (down hole applications), normal lead-free solders (melting at ~220 oC) and organic FR4 PCBs (<140 oC) become unsuitable due to the ambient temperatures exceeding operating limits. Traditionally these high-reliability applications have had to use high cost alumina technologies. Alumina substrates are hard to machine and use gold, silver or palladium conductor inks interleaved with dielectric material requiring successive firing at high temperatures (600 oC). The result is very reliable and stable but very high cost in terms of monetarily outlay (tooling £15k) and energy use. Through-hole component assembly and through-substrate vias are also difficult to produce with ceramic technology.

Using polymeric based systems at temperatures above 175 oC can be problematic. Whilst several substrates with decomposition temperatures (the temperature at which a 5% weight loss occurs by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) (Reference 3)) above 400 °C and/or T288 (measures time to delamination at 288 °C (Reference 4)) times of greater than 60 mins (References 1, 2), these figures make no account for the performance of the copper (Cu) cladding. Previous work by the authors to develop a high temperature solder alternative (Reference 5) showed that the weak link in the system was the electroless nickel/immersion gold (ENIG) finished Cu tracking connecting the components.


Figure 1

Figure 1 shows track failures generated after 6500 hours aging at 250 oC. Here the Cu track has oxidised causing embrittlement and subsequent fracture resulting in electrical failures.


Figure 2

Figure 2 shows x-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX) scans of cross-sections of similar samples before and after 3000 hours at 250 °C. Increased oxygen content can be seen in the aged sample.


Figure 3

The Cu failures occurred earlier and with higher frequency in samples soldered using high melting point solder. This is shown in Figure 3 where the failure rates of high temperature conductive adhesives (designated D2 and D5) manufactured by curing the adhesives at 250 °C are compared with the soldered samples (HMP) manufactured above the melting point of the solder (~300 °C). Full pad refers to solder paste or adhesive printed over the full area of a normal 1206 component pad or land. For half pad samples the adhesive was only printed on the inner half of the pad or land (i.e. underneath the component). The increased temperatures of HMP reflow have caused the extra degradation of PCB and subsequent higher failure rate of the samples (Reference 5). The premature failures of the Cu tracking on the test vehicles led the authors to consider using high temperature organic coatings to inhibit oxide formation.

Phase 1: Initial Trials of Coatings

Trials of specially formulated coatings were conducted on glass-reinforced polyimide substrate samples with surface tracks with an ENIG finish on Cu. The samples were dip coated with two coatings (designated D2 and D3) and cured at 250 °C for 30 mins. Control samples were left uncoated. The samples were then aged for up to 425 hours at 250 °C. Examples were micro-sectioned at 0, 257 and 425 hours of aging.


Figure 4

Optical images can be seen in Figure 4. The development of the Cu can clearly be seen as the darker area on the underside (lower) of the track. The outer (upper) surface of the Cu was protected from oxygen ingress by the ENIG surface finish. Thus the rate of oxide formation is controlled by the rate that oxygen can permeate through the underlying substrate. The coated samples showed reduced oxidation compared to the unprotected samples with the slowest rate being exhibited by the D3 samples. This material was therefore chosen for further evaluation for the remainder of the project.


Figure 5

Phase 2: Performance assessment of coated multilayer test vehicles

To determine the performance benefits of the high temperature coating, a four layer PCB test vehicle was designed.A schematic of the PCB and main features of the design can be seen in Figure 5. The design consisted of 4 measurement circuits (designated R1 to R4) of decreasing feature size. The main features of each circuit were as follows:

R1: Vias = 5X mm Ø,         Tracks = 8Y mm

R2: Vias = 2.5X mm Ø,      Tracks = 4Y mm

R3: Vias = 1.5X mm Ø,      Tracks = 2Y mm

R4: Vias = X mm Ø.            Tracks = Y mm

Each measurement circuit consisted of four daisy chains connected in series.  These circuits consisted of:

Upper chain: Outer layers and through vias

Upper middle chain: Inner layers and through vias

Lower middle chain: Outer/inner layers and mvias

Lower chain: Outer/inner layers and larger mvias

Test vehicles were fabricated in a glass-reinforced polyimide laminate system (designated PI) and a high Tg (~260 °C) glass-reinforced epoxy system (designated EP). Thermally resistant wires were soldered to the PCBs using a high Pb content solder to allow continuous monitoring. Control samples were left uncoated. To coat the coated samples, they were dip coated with the D3 coating and cured at 250 °C for 30 mins. This method ensured complete coating of the entire PCB. A resist version of the coating was developed which was screen-printed onto the upper (Resist) and upper and lower surfaces (Resist1) of the PCB with annular ring clearances around vias and uncoated edges. The test vehicles were subjected to isothermal ageing at 250 °C for up to 3500 hours. The electrical resistance of each of the four measurement chains was logged every minute using a switching system and digital resistance meter using 2-probe resistance measurements.


Figure 6


Figure 6 shows the failures for each measurement chain as a function of time for the polyimide samples. The failure criteria was a chain resistance of greater than 10 ohms. As the feature size increases (R4 < R3 < R2 < R1), it can be seen that the hours to failure increase corresponding, due to the increased volume of Cu requiring oxidation before failure occurred.


Figure 7

Figure 7 shows some typical micro-sections of the polyimide substrates after ageing. The thinner inner layer can be seen to be almost totally consumed by oxide, with the upper surface of the outer layer again protected by the PCB surface finish. The coated samples (in orange) performed better than both the resist and uncoated samples, extending the typical time to failure by greater than 50% compared to the resist coated examples, indicating that complete encapsulation of the test vehicle was required to achieve the best performance.


Figure 8

For the high Tg epoxy substrates the resist was only applied to one surface of the substrate. Figure 8 shows the failures for each measurement chain as a function of time for the high Tg epoxy samples. The failure criteria was again a chain resistance of greater than 10 ohms. After 3500 hours of testing at 250 °C, the coated examples exhibited no failures, indicating an improvement in performance of at least 100% compared to uncoated substrates. As the feature size increased (R4 < R3 < R2 <R1), it can be seen that the hours to failure increase corresponding for the uncoated substrates, due to the increased volume of Cu requiring oxidation before failure occurred. The failures in the resist coated samples is largely independent of feature size.fig9

Figure 9

Figure 9 shows a comparison of failures rates for high Tg epoxy and polyimide substrates for the R1 features size. This indicates that the high Tg epoxy system substrates showed improved performance compared to the polyimide substrates.


This evaluation of substrate materials has shown that by careful choice of material and the use of innovative coating materials, the ability to survive isothermal ageing at 250 °C can be significantly improved. The polyimide system evaluated here showed significant resistance increases after approximately 800 hours at 250 °C for larger PCB feature sizes. By using an alternative high Tg epoxy substrate and an innovative coating material, the performance of the system has been improved to better than 3500 hours at 250 °C even for its smallest feature sizes. With the coating an improvement is at least 100% in lifetime has been shown.


The authors wish to acknowledge our partners in the project whose participation made the work possible; Piers Tremlett of Microsemi, and Robin Pittson and Laura Statton of Gwent Electronic Materials. We also wish to acknowledge the support of the UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, the National Measurement Office and Innovate UK.


1. http://www.smartgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/4-Merlin_PCB_Fab.pdf

2. http://www.epectec.com/pcb/laminate-material.html

3. IPC‐TM‐650 Decomposition Temperature (Td) of 1.Laminate Material Using TGA

4. IPC‐TM‐650 Time to Delamination (TMA Method)

5. Martin Wickham, Kate Clayton, Ana Robador, Chris Hunt, Robin Pittson, Laura Statton, Tina Brown, Fiona Lambert, and Tracy Wotherspoon; Development of a High Temperature Interconnect Solution as an Alternative to High Lead or Gold Content Solders: HiTEC, May 2016, pp. 196-206.

Go back to Contents


Section 9

PCB Fabricators Group - a new Group to benefit all who fabricate PCB’s in the UK. 

 steve payne

Steve Payne

Chairman of the PCB Fabricators Group

A new group within the ICT has been formed at the request of PCB Fabricators. For some years now there has not been a structured forum whereby Fabricators can meet and voice their concerns and work together for the benfit of the industry.

The PCB Fabricators Group and the ICT have proposed a membership scheme and associated subscription fees which will include up to 4 meeting per year, regular Industry Statistics and other activities providing benefit and value to members.

The membership scheme is planned to commence from January 2019 and detailed information will be sent out soon. The next meeting will be held at Harrogate on the 6th December 2018.

The objective of the Group is to provide benefit to those companies fabricating PCB’s (in all their various forms), through supporting the development and growth of the PCB manufacturing industry and to aid the transfer of knowledge and information. Members benefit from access to business networking, market data, events, newsletters and other publications.

The PCB Fabricators Group will seek to present a cohesive and coordinated approach in dealing with other parts of industry, government and other organisations and to serve the collective needs of its members in terms of business, technical and commercial issues.

If you would like more information or are interested in joining The Group, please contact Steve Payne, (details below).

Steve Payne

Chairman - PCB Fabricators Group

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Go back to Contents


Section 10

Industry News 

Section 10.1

Update from Adeon

Ucamco introduces YELO - Yield Enhancement Layer Optimizer

Ucamco’s brand-new suite of Yield Enhancing Layout modules guarantees lowest cost PCB fabrication by optimising board layout for client-specified manufacturing class, delivering higher-yield, easy to manufacture designs, and cutting CAM throughput times by up to 30%. For a limited time, YELO is available free of charge for evaluation in UcamX 2018.06, the latest version of Ucamco’s ultra-powerful all-in-one CAM software suite for the global PCB manufacturing industry. Read more...

 Section 10.2

By Michelle Hunt / August 24, 2018
ALR Services Ltd upgraded to the new BS EN9120:2016 Aerospace Quality Management System Standard in 2017 and passed with zero non-conformances.

This week, we had our surveillance audit and once again, passed with zero non-conformances.

We are delighted to maintain our ‘clean sheet’ and this is as a result of the commitment and dedication of our workforce.Read more...

Section 10.3

The next revolution in electroless copper for advanced FPCB
Atotech introduces a new horizontal electroless copper process specifically developed to ensure a blister-free electroless copper deposition and shiny surface appearance after electrolytic copper plating.Read more...

Section 10.4

Merlin Circuit Technology Install Two LM2 Drilling Machines From Schmoll Maschinen

New PCB designs are being created to meet the demands of a market place where features are always reducing and the number of interconnects are always rising. In turn this has driven PCBs with more complex builds, buried layers and multiple bonding operations which generate more drill operations and rising… Read more

Merlin Circuit Technology Invest In Latest X-Ray Drilling Technology

Merlin Circuit Technology continues to develop and invest in the latest X-Ray drilling technology. The new Mach3 Lab Antares 700X X-Ray drill, supplied by Adeon Technologies. The new Antares compliments the NC Drill Department which is being updated and improved as tighter hole to pad tolerances and… Read more

 Section 10.5

GSPK are proud to announce the successful transition from ISO9001:2008 and the Automotive accreditation TS16949:2009 to the new standards of ISO9001:2015 and IATF16949:2016: GSPK are the only PCB manufacturing company within the UK that currently owns the Automotive accreditation. GSPK are extremely proud of this achievement as the transition contains extensive changes and improvements from the previous standard Read more..

 Section 10.6 Tim Tatton, General Manager of Amphenol Invotec, one of Europe’s leading manufacturers of advanced PCBs, made a presentation at Westminster on 5th November in support of Sharing in Growth. Read more..
 Section 10.7

PMD Group feature in the Sunday Times Lloyds SME Export Track 100. Ranked at No 67 PMD have a subsidiary in India and distributors as far afield as Vietnam and Thailand. Read more..

 Section 10.8

SCL PCB Solutions Group, are pleased to announce that it has completed a £1.9m asset refinancing facility for Lyncolec and its sister company Spirit Circuits with Amicus Asset Finance.

Utilising the existing fixed assets of the group the facility delivers an annual payment saving of £250,000 significantly improving cashflow and enabling considerable further investment by the group. Read more..

 Section 10.9 Stevenage Circuits have installed a hole (resin) filling system from ITC Intercircuit GmbH to meet the increasing demand for the filling of micro-vias, blind vias and small diameter or high aspect ratio through holes.

The system comprises a THP35 Double Chamber Plugging machine with a new patented type of vacuum filling head enabling double sided filling of blind and through holes in one step. Read more...

Section 10.10 Zot have ordered a new Schmoll LM2 routing and drilling machine. With depth rout capability, this state of the art Routing machine will allow us to rout features to +/- 25 micron accuracy. It will also allow accurate depth routing to +/- 12 microns. This new machine will allow us to increase capability in our flex and flex rigid manufacturing, as well as allowing us to rout increasingly tighter features and tolernaces. Read more...
   Go back to Contents


Section 11

Corporate Members of The Institute of Circuit Technology

May 2018

Adeon Technologies BV

 Weidehek 26,A1 4824 AS Breda,The Netherlands

ALR Services Ltd.  Unit 9, Thame Business Park, A1 Thame, Oxon OX9 3XA


Atotech UK Ltd. William Street, West Bromwich. B70 0BE www.atotech.com
CCE Europe Wharton Ind. Est., Nat Lane, Winsford, CW7 3BS www.ccee.co.uk
ECS Circuits Ltd. Unit B7, Centrepoint Business Park, Oak Road, Dublin 12, Ireland  www.ecscircuits.com
Electra Polymers Ltd.  Roughway Mill, Dunks Green, Tonbridge, TN11 9SG  www.electrapolymers.com
The Eurotech Group  Salterton Industrial Estate, Salterton Road, Exmouth EX8 4RZ www.eurotech-group.co.uk
Exception PCB Solutions  Ashchurch Business Centre, Alexandra Way, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire. GL20 8NB www.exceptionpcbsolutions.com 
Merlin PCB Group Hawarden Industrial Park, Manor Ln, Deeside, Flintshire, North Wales, CH5 3QZ www.merlinpcbgroup.com
Faraday Printed Circuits Ltd 15-19 Faraday Close, Pattinson North Ind. Est.,  Washington. NE38 8QJ  www.faraday-circuits.co.uk
Graphic plc Down End, Lords Meadow Ind. Est.,Crediton EX17 1HN  www.graphic.plc.uk 
GSPK (TCL Group)  Knaresborough Technology Park, Manse Lane, Knaresborough HG5 8LF www.gspkcircuits.ltd.uk 
Invotec Group Ltd Hedging Lane, Dosthill, Tamworth B77 5HH www.invotecgroup.com 
PMD (UK) Ltd. Broad Lane,Broad Lane,Coventry CV5 7AY www.pmdgroup.co.uk 
Rainbow Technology Systems  40 Kelvin Avenue, Hillington Park, Glasgow G52 4LT www.rainbow-technology.com 
SCL PCB Solutions Group 22-24 Aston Road, Waterlooville, Hampshire PO7 7XJ www.spiritcircuits.com 
Stevenage Circuits Ltd Caxton Way, Stevenage. SG1 2DF www.stevenagecircuits.co.uk 
Sun Chemical Norton Hill, Midsomer Norton, Bath www.sunchemical.com
Ventec Europe 1 Trojan Business Centre, Tachbrook Park Estate,  Leamington Spa CV34 6RH www.ventec-europe.com
Zot Engineering Ltd Inveresk Industrial Park Musselburgh, B19EH21 7UQ  www.zot.co.uk 


Section 12

Publishers Notes

The ICT Journal

Instructions/hints for Contributors


1. As it is a digital format the length is not an issue but not too short and not too long! Short is better than none at all.

2. Article can be a paper or a text version of a seminar or company presentation. Please include data tables, graphs, or powerpoint slides.We can shrink them down to about quarter of a page. Obviously not just bullet points to speak from.

3. Photo's are welcome.

4. We would not need  source cross references

5. Title of presentation - Of course! Date, Job title of Author and Company represented.

6. An introductory summary of about 150 words would give the reader a flavour of what it's all about.

7. Style - we don't want out and out advertising but we do recognise that the speaker has a specialism in the product or process that will include some trade promotion. Sometimes it will be a unique process or equipment so trade specific must be allowed.

8. Date and any info relating to where or if this article may have been published before.

9. We can accept virtually any format. Word, Powerpoint, publisher, PDF or Open Office equivalents.

10. Also, to make it easy, the author can provide a word file to go along with his original powerpoint presentation and I/we can merge it together and select the required images.

11. A photo of author or collaborators.

I really do look forward to receiving articles for publication.

Richard Wood-Roe

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Go back to Contents

Cookies user preferences
We use cookies to ensure you to get the best experience on our website. If you decline the use of cookies, this website may not function as expected.
Accept all
Decline all
Security Modules
Admin Tools
Enhanced security
Tools used to analyze the data to measure the effectiveness of a website and to understand how it works.
Google Analytics